Laser has three characteristics: excellent monochromaticity, coherence and directional collimation. These features make it particularly suitable for material processing. Laser processing is one of the most promising areas in many applications of lasers, and more than 20 laser processing technologies have been developed. The space controllability and time controllability of the laser machine are very good, and the requirements for the material, shape, size and processing environment of the processing object are very large, and it is especially suitable for automatic processing. The combination of laser machining system and computer numerical control technology can form high-efficiency automatic processing equipment, which has become the key technology for enterprises to implement timely production, and has opened up broad prospects for high-quality, high-efficiency and low-cost processing and production.
The laser rapid prototyping technology integrates the latest achievements of laser technology, CAD/CAM technology and material technology. According to the CAD model of the part, the photosensitive polymer material is cured layer by layer with a laser beam, and accurately stacked into a sample, without the need for molds and tools. Quickly and accurately manufacture parts with complex shapes, and this technology has been widely used in aerospace, electronics, automotive and other industrial fields. Laser cutting technology is widely used in the processing of metal and non-metal materials, which can greatly reduce processing time, reduce processing costs and improve workpiece quality. The pulsed laser is suitable for metal materials, and the continuous laser is suitable for non-metallic materials, and the latter is an important application field of laser cutting technology. Laser welding technology has the effect of molten pool purification, can purify the weld metal, and is suitable for welding between the same and different metal materials.
Laser welding has a high energy density, which is especially beneficial for welding metals with high melting points, high reflectivity, high thermal conductivity and greatly different physical properties. Laser welding, using a laser beam with a lower power than when cutting metal, melts the material without vaporizing it, and becomes a continuous solid structure after cooling. Laser drilling technology has the advantages of high precision, strong versatility, high efficiency, low cost and significant comprehensive technical and economic benefits, and has become one of the key technologies in the field of modern manufacturing.
Before the advent of lasers, only harder materials could be used to punch holes in less hard materials. This makes it extremely difficult to drill holes in the hardest diamond. With the advent of lasers, this type of operation is fast and safe.
Laser marking technology is one of the largest application areas of laser processing. Laser marking is a marking method that uses a high-energy-density laser to locally irradiate the workpiece to vaporize or change the color of the surface material, thereby leaving a permanent mark.
Laser marking can print various characters, symbols and patterns, etc., and the character size can range from millimeters to micrometers, which is of special significance to the anti-counterfeiting of products. All-solid UV laser marking is a new technology developed in recent years, especially suitable for metal marking, which can achieve sub-micron marking, and has been widely used in microelectronics industry and biological engineering.
Laser deweighting and balancing technology is a process of using lasers to remove the unbalanced overweight parts on high-speed rotating parts, so that the inertial axis coincides with the rotating axis to achieve dynamic balance. Laser deduplication and balance technology has two functions of measurement and deduplication, which can simultaneously measure and correct unbalance, greatly improve the efficiency, and have broad application prospects in the field of gyroscope manufacturing. For high-precision rotors, laser dynamic balancing can double the balancing accuracy, and the balancing accuracy of the mass eccentricity value can reach 1% or a few thousandths of a micron.
Laser etching technology is simpler than traditional chemical etching technology, can greatly reduce production costs, and can process lines with a width of 0.15 to 1 micron, which is very suitable for the manufacture of ultra-large-scale integrated circuits.
The laser fine-tuning technology can automatically fine-tune the resistance, and the accuracy can reach 0.01% to 0.002%, which is higher than the traditional processing method with higher precision and efficiency and lower cost. Laser trimming includes fine-tuning of thin film resistors (0.01-0.6 microns thick) and thick-film resistors (20-50 microns thick), fine-tuning of capacitors and fine-tuning of hybrid integrated circuits. Laser storage technology is a technology that uses lasers to record video, audio, text and computer information (such as CD, DVD, etc.), and is one of the supporting technologies in the information age.