Powder metallurgy is a process technology for preparing metal or using metal powder (or a mixture of metal powder and non-metal powder) as raw material, after forming and sintering, to manufacture metal materials, composite materials and various types of products. The powder metallurgy product industry in a broad sense includes iron and stone tools, cemented carbide, magnetic materials and powder metallurgy products. The powder metallurgy product industry in a narrow sense only refers to powder metallurgy products, including powder metallurgy auto parts (the vast majority), oil-impregnated bearings and metal injection molding products.
- 1. The density of the product is controllable, such as porous materials, good density materials, etc.;
- 2. The grains are small, the microstructure is uniform, and there is no component segregation;
- 3. Near-shaped forming, the utilization rate of raw materials is more than 95%;
- 4. Less cutting, only 40~50% cutting;
- 5. The material components are controllable, which is conducive to the preparation of composite materials;
- 6. Preparation of insoluble metals, ceramic materials and nuclear materials.
Pulverizing is the process of making raw materials into powder. Commonly used pulverizing methods include oxide reduction method and mechanical method.
Mixing is the process of mixing various required powders in a certain proportion and homogenizing them to make green powder. There are three types of dry, semi-dry and wet, which are used for different requirements.
Forming is a process in which the mixed material is evenly mixed, loaded into a die and pressed into a parison with a certain shape, size and density. The molding method is basically divided into pressure molding and pressureless molding. Compression molding is widely used in compression molding.
Sintering is a critical step in powder metallurgy process. The shaped compact is sintered to obtain the desired final physical and mechanical properties. Sintering is further divided into unit-system sintering and multi-system sintering. In addition to ordinary sintering, there are special sintering processes such as loose sintering, infusion method, and hot pressing method.
After sintering, various methods can be adopted according to different product requirements. Such as finishing, oil immersion, machining, heat treatment and electroplating. In addition, in recent years, some new processes such as rolling and forging have also been applied to the fabrication of powder metallurgy materials after sintering, and achieved ideal results.
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